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Our zinc/lead reserves & resources

tonnes of lead
tonnes of zinc

Our lead/zinc projects


Uses of zinc

The world’s fourth most used mineral after iron, aluminium and copper, zinc-based batteries have been in existence since the 1930’s, it forming the negative cathode in lead batteries. In current times, The International Zinc Association (“IZA") is actively promoting the re-chargeable zinc battery through the Zinc Battery Initiative. IZA believes, “The advancement of zinc battery technologies, resulting in low-cost, sustainable and safe options for key applications, represents a disruptive innovation with significant impacts on these (the battery) markets going forward”….. “They are versatile, offering flexible designs with broad operating temperatures, high power discharge, and are capable of long duration storage.”


Uses of lead in batteries

According the World Resources Forum over 70% of lead is used in batteries – but what is less recognised is the role of lead batteries:

    1. to cut emissions in ICE vehicles through its use in “stop start” technology and regenerative braking;

    2. within EV vehicles to perform “critical on-board emergency and safety functions such as airbags, emergency systems, anti-lock brakes and battery management system. The EV revolution not only relies on lead batteries through their use in micro and mild hybrid applications, but also by being more widely used in EV charging stations themselves. Here, they improve efficiency, reduce cost and provide backup power”. (Source: Charge The Future).

According to Avicenne Energy, advanced lead batteries to increase fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions in micro-hybrids are projected to represent 80% of cars on EU roads by 2030 and 75% of the EU motive battery power market for forklift trucks by the same year.